|Anemia – Lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells
|• Feel tired or weak
• Look pale
• Feel faint
• Shortness of breath
|Treating the underlying cause of the anemia will help restore the number of healthy red blood cells. Women with pregnancy-related anemia are helped by taking iron and folic acid supplements. Your doctor will check your iron levels throughout pregnancy to be sure anemia does not happen again.
|Depression – Extreme sadness during pregnancy or after birth (postpartum)
|• Intense sadness
• Helplessness and irritability
• Appetite changes
• Thoughts of harming self or baby
|Women who are pregnant might be helped with one or a combination of treatment options, including:
• Support groups
A mother's depression can affect her baby's development, so getting treatment is important for both mother and baby. Learn more about depression during and after pregnancy.
|Ectopic pregnancy – When a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube
|• Abdominal pain
• Shoulder pain
• Vaginal bleeding
• Feeling dizzy or faint
|With an ectopic pregnancy, the egg cannot develop. Drugs or surgery is used to remove the ectopic tissue, so your organs are not damaged.
|Fetal problems – Unborn baby has a health issue, such as poor growth or heart problems
|• Baby moving less than normal (Learn how to count your baby's movements on our Prenatal care and tests page.)
• Baby is smaller than normal for gestational age
• Some problems have no symptoms but are found with prenatal tests
|Treatment depends on the results of tests to monitor the baby's health. If a test suggests a problem, this does not always mean the baby is in trouble. It may only mean that the mother needs special care until the baby is delivered. This can include a wide variety of things, such as bed rest, depending on the mother's condition. Sometimes, the baby has to be delivered early.
|Gestational diabetes – Too high blood sugar levels during pregnancy
|• Usually, there are no symptoms. Sometimes, extreme thirst, hunger, or fatigue
• A screening test shows high blood sugar levels
Most women with pregnancy-related diabetes can control their blood sugar levels by following a healthy meal plan from their doctor. Some women also need insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. Doing so is important because poorly controlled diabetes increases the risk of:
• Early delivery
• Cesarean birth
• Having a big baby, which can complicate delivery
• Baby born with low blood sugar, breathing problems, and jaundice
|High blood pressure (pregnancy related) – High blood pressure that starts after 20 weeks of pregnancy and goes away after birth
|• High blood pressure without other signs and symptoms of preeclampsia
|The health of the mother and baby are closely watched to make sure high blood pressure is not preeclampsia.
|Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) – Severe, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy — more extreme than "morning sickness"
|• Nausea that does not go away
• Vomiting several times every day
• Weight loss
• Reduced appetite
• Feeling faint or fainting
|Dry, bland foods and fluids together is the first line of treatment. Sometimes, medicines are prescribed to help nausea. Many women with HG have to be hospitalized so they can be fed fluids and nutrients through a tube in their veins. Usually, women with HG begin to feel better by the 20th week of pregnancy. But some women vomit and feel nauseated throughout all three trimesters.
|Miscarriage – Pregnancy loss from natural causes before 20 weeks. As many as 20 percents of pregnancies end in miscarriage. Often, miscarriage occurs before a woman even knows she is pregnant
|Signs of a miscarriage can include:
• Vaginal spotting or bleeding*
• Cramping or abdominal pain
• Fluid or tissue passing from the vagina
* Spotting early in pregnancy doesn't mean miscarriage is certain. Still, contact your doctor right away if you have any bleeding.
|In most cases, miscarriage cannot be prevented. Sometimes, a woman must undergo treatment to remove pregnancy tissue in the uterus. Counseling can help with emotional healing. See our section on Pregnancy loss.
|Placenta previa – Placenta covers part or entire opening of cervix inside of the uterus
|• Painless vaginal bleeding during the second or third trimester
• For some, no symptoms
|If diagnosed after the 20th week of pregnancy, but with no bleeding, a woman will need to cut back on her activity level and increase bed rest. If bleeding is heavy, hospitalization may be needed until the mother and baby are stable. If the bleeding stops or is light, continued bed rest is resumed until the baby is ready for delivery. If bleeding doesn't stop or if preterm labor starts, a baby will be delivered by cesarean section.
|Placental abruption – Placenta separates from uterine wall before delivery, which can mean the fetus doesn't get enough oxygen.
|• Vaginal bleeding
• Cramping, abdominal pain, and uterine tenderness
|When the separation is minor, bed rest for a few days usually stops the bleeding. Moderate cases may require complete bed rest. Severe cases (when more than half of the placenta separates) can require immediate medical attention and early delivery of the baby.
|Preeclampsia – A condition starting after 20 weeks of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and problems with the kidneys and other organs. Also called toxemia.
|The only cure is delivery, which may not be best for the baby. Labor will probably be induced if condition is mild and the woman is near term (37 to 40 weeks of pregnancy). If it is too early to deliver, the doctor will watch the health of the mother and her baby very closely. She may need medicines and bed rest at home or in the hospital to lower her blood pressure. Medicines also might be used to prevent the mother from having seizures.
|Preterm labor – Going into labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy
|• Increased vaginal discharge
• Pelvic pressure and cramping
• Back pain radiating to the abdomen
|Medicines can stop labor from progressing. Bed rest is often advised. Sometimes, a woman must deliver early. Giving birth before 37 weeks is called "preterm birth." Preterm birth is a major risk factor for future preterm births.